As a pediatric subspecialty, neonatology poses a special challenge for residents: rotations are short, but care for preterm and critically ill patients is complex. Despite residents brief exposure to neonatology, they’re expected to have a good understanding of key concepts, diagnoses and therapies when they sit for the boards. Attendings often struggle with how best to teach these concepts, because residents don’t always have exposure to the range of babies they need to see to have a good foundation in this area. Neonatology Case-Based Review addresses this information gap by presenting 112 case-based multiple-choice questions in neonatology. Cases are mapped to the American Board of Pediatrics Content Specifications for pediatric residents; the Review is appropriate for residents entering their neonatology rotation, as an introduction to the subspecialty, and again as they study for their boards. Answers include rationales so that the Review is a comprehensive teaching guide for attendings as well.